THE 6 BASIC SECTIONS ASSEMBLIES / SECTIONS OF COPIER MACHINES
PAPER TRANSPORT ASSEMBLY
The Pick Up Roller is shaped like a wheel and has the ability to pull paper from a stack in the paper tray. Generally, each paper tray has its own dedicated Pick Up Roller.
The Feed Roller also known as Registration Roller or Synchronizing Roller is a moving roller that feeds paper that has been picked up by the Pick Up Roller from the paper tray into the main body of the copier.
The Separation Roller or Paper Separation Roller consists of a stationary roller with a high friction coating. When used in tandem with the Feed Roller, the Separation Roller rotates to allow a single sheet of paper through from the top of the stack but stops the sheets below it.
There are various types of Motors used within a copier. Commonly found ones are the document feeder motor and ink pump motor.
Manual Feed is the paper feed residing at the sides of a copier.
Auto duplex is the ability to print on both sides of the paper. Also known as double sided printing.
OPTICS AND IMAGE CAPTURE ASSEMBLY
The Main Charger's main job is to charge the cylindrical photoconductive drum or OPC drum. To be able to do this, the Main Charger Unit utilizes the use of the Corona Wire, Grid Wire or a Charged Roller. In some copier machines, the Main Charger Unit is a separate unit. In others, it is incorporated into a Toner Cartridge.
The Corona Wire also known as Charge Corona Wire or Main Charger wire is a very fine high voltage wire that is placed across and inside the Main Charger Unit . Its job is to electrostatically charge the OPC drum to allow for conductivity when exposed to light. Whennot included from the toner cartridge, it sits beneath the cartridge.
The Grid Wire consists of very fine high voltage wires similar to the main Corona Wire. It serves as a secondary network of high voltage wires, sometimes in different designs to facilitate speed of the copying process and works in tandem to the main Corona Wire. Both the main Corona Wire and the Grid Wire serve the same function of providing a uniform charge to the photoconductive surface of the OPC drum.
The Cleaner Pad sits alongside the wires in the Main Charger Unit. Its function is to enable users to clean the Corona Wire and Grid Wire as part of maintenance. There is usually a cleaning knob at the end of the cleaner pad.
The LED Lamps or Lamps are part of the exposure process of the copier machine. Its main function is to illuminate the original document that then reflects lights onto the surface of the drum, It is an essential part of a copier as the OPC drum will not function without exposure to light.
The Insulation Bushing is typically a thin tube that helps to reduce the friction, vibration and improve efficiency within the Fuser Unit. High temperatures may cause the Insulation Bushing to crack and require replacement.
A Laser Scanning Unit is a digital micro mirror device used to deflect laser beam used in laser printers and such. It is usually used in tandem with a photosensitive drum and a deflective device.
A component added to the Main Charge Unit to help improve print quality problems due to poor toner transfer. Only found in certain models and brands.
PRINT DEVELOPMENT ASSEMBLY
Also known as the Photoconductor Unit (PCU), Imaging Unit (IU) or Organic Photoconductor (OPC) is a metal cylinder that is electrically charged to attract toner particles. They are typically hollow and ranges between 10-35µm in thickness with diameters averaging around 20mm.
The Developer Unit is a device in a copier machine that consists of 2 main parts which is the developer, generally a mixture of iron fragments that are magnetic and helps "carry" the toner powder by an electrical charge to the drum as well as the Developer Roller, a negatively charged cylinder that passes through the toner in the toner hopper. Some copiers have the developer integrated into either the drum or toner cartridges.
The Magnetic Roller or the Developer Roller is a cylindrical component that serves to meter and deliver a uniform layer of toner. The magnetic core generates a field of magnetic force that attracts the toner residing in the toner hopper onto the magnetic sleeve of the roller to be transported to the development zone.
The Toner Concentration Sensor is primarily used by the Developer Unit. It senses the change in permeability as the developer "carries" toner across the sensor towards the OPC drum. This change is what detemines the concentration of toner.
The Toner Amount Sensor used primarily in colour copiers, is used to read the diffused light from toner on the transfer belt during the development process. The toner amount provides an indication of how much additional voltage is required to attract toner to the transfer belt.
Part of the Developer Unit. The Toner Filter Unit sits on top of the Developer Unit above the developer and its primary function is to stop toner from flying out of the Developer Unit during the printing process.
The 1st Transfer Belt otherwise known as Intermediate Transfer Belt, Image Transfer Belt or Transfer Assemblies is part of the development process for colour printers. It sits after the drum and before the fuser. Its primary job is to transfer the image or text from the OPC drum onto your media i.e paper as well as collect any excess toner to be redirected to the toner waste reservoir.
The 1st Transfer Roller functions similarly to the 1st Transfer Belt in that it facilitates the transfer of images and text from drum to paper. Generally found in smaller printers, it replaces the larger 1st Transfer Belt or Intermediate Transfer Belt.
The Separator Pawl works to separate a sheet of paper from a photosensitive drum or OPC drum by pressing at both side ends of the supporting shaft and maintaining the pawl tip at an angle facing slightly away from the face of the drum.
The Transfer Front Roller resides inside the Transfer Belt. Its function is to help charge the Transfer Belt to enable it to attract toner.
The Toner Hopper is a small container designed to store toner powder in. A negatively charged developer roller will then pass through the toner in a toner hopper to collect toner particles to the drum
The 2nd Transfer Roller is a roller placed directly after the 1st Transfer Belt or 1st Transfer Roller. It has the same functionality as a 2nd Transfer Belt in that it applies a charge to one side of the paper and separates the paper from the 1st Transfer Belt or Roller.
The 2nd Transfer Belt is a smaller belt placed directly after the 1st Transfer Belt or 1st Transfer Roller and usually found in larger colour copiers. It has the same functionality as a 2nd Transfer Roller in that it separates the paper from the 1st Transfer Belt or Roller.
The 2nd Transfer Gear is designed to help move the 2nd Transfer Belt. It is part of the 2nd Transfer Belt components.
Bearings are mechanical components that assists an objects rotation. In a copier's case it is to assist the rotating shafts o the many cylindrical components that make up the internal system such as the Fuser Roller.
Part of the Fuser Unit. The Top Roller, Upper Fuer Roller or simply Fuser Roller generates heat up to around 200 degrees, enabling the toner particles to melt onto paper and produce text or image. It is usuallty Teflon-coated.
Part of the Fuser Unit. The Pressure Roller or Lower Pressure Roller assists the Top Roller by applying pressure and compresses the toner to create the desired impression before exiting.
Part of the Fuser Unit. The Fusing or Fuser Belt is the belt residing within the Fuser Unit. It is a seamless, endless belt with a surface in contact with a heating element and together with a backup roller forms a nip to for the media feed path to go through.
The Thermostat in copier machine works as a safety net. It is typically either a bi-metal coil or a metal strip that moves when there is a too large a change of temperature.
Thermistors are temperature dependent resistors whose function is to detect small changes in temperature. It has various uses in a copier, one of which is to maintain the temperature of the fusing roller. Too low and the toner will not melt. Too high and the paper will be damaged.
Part of the Fuser Unit. The Insulation Bushing is typically a hard round plastic that helps to lock in place the Fuser Unit. High temperatures may cause the Insulation Bushing to crack and be replaced.
Typically found in low end copier machines, the Fuser Flm Sleeve is put in place of a Fuser Belt within the Fuser Unit. It then takes up the function of the typical Fuser Belt.
Heater Lamp or Fuser Heater Lamp is a lamp used specifically as a heat source in a copier to "set" the toner used in the copier. It may also be used for general heating purposes.
Cleaning blades are silicone based components that are used to clean untransferred residue toner from the OPC drum mechanically and electrostatically. During the clean cycle, the cleaning blade acts as a scraper whilst cleaning the surface of the drum and removing the waste into a used toner receptacle.
1st Transfer Cleaning Unit refers to a unit or device that contains a cleaning blade and used to clean the 1st Transfer Belt.
The 1st Transfer Cleaning Blade sits next to the 1st Transfer Belt and helps to clean the belt of residue toner.
The Cleaning Brush is a component made of conductive material that sits close to the drum. Its main job is to attract and remove charged toner particle from the OPC or photosensitive drum to be discarded or reused.
The Cleaning Roller is a component of the cleaning device and functions similarly to the Cleaning Brush in that it removes the charged toner particle from OPC drum.
The Waste Toner usually comes in the form of a bottle and is used as a reservoir that catches the excess toner residue that remain on a drum after a completed printing job.
The Web Roller or Cleaning Web Roller is located within the Fusing Unit. Has to be changed intermittently.
DIGITAL COMPONENTS SECTION
The control panel of any copier consist of the same basic components such as a panel display which may or may not be touch operated, physical keys for various operation and a power switch to to turn copier on or off, It is located at the front of the copier just above the paper feed trays.
A Printed Circuit Board is essentially a board that connects electrical and electronic components on platform/s of laminated copper via conductive tracks etched onto it. Components are soldered onto the PCB to electrically and mechanically connect it together to form a cohesive circuit.